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Cannabinoids can unleash a potential antitumor effect

When cannabinoids activate signaling pathways in cancer cells they can stimulate a cell death mechanism called apoptosis, unleashing a potent antitumor effect. Yet cannabinoids, which have also shown strong activity against human tumor tissue grown in animal models, have undergone minimal testing in patients. Their potential use as antitumor drugs and/or to boost the effectiveness of conventional cancer therapies is examined in an article published in The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (JACM).

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The bracts surrounding a cluster of Cannabis sativa flowers are coated with cannabinoid-laden trichomes (image by Wikimedia)

In “A Review of the Therapeutic Antitumor Potential of Cannabinoids,” scientists present the results of a detailed survey of the medical and scientific literature focused on the effects of cannabinoids on signaling pathways involved in tumor cell proliferation and death. The researchers review the mechanisms of anticancer activity of cannabinoids, discuss the similarities and differences between exogenous (plant-derived) and endogenous cannabinoids, report on the clinical studies conducted to date to assess the antitumor effects of these compounds, and consider the possible adjuvant properties of cannabinoids in cancer treatment.

“Although medical cannabis is well-supported in the literature for symptom reduction from cancer treatment or the disease itself, there are many claims that cannabis can treat cancer itself,” says Leslie Mendoza Temple, MD, ABOIM, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine and Medical Director, Integrative Medicine Program. “So far, this is based on only a handful of small human studies, anecdote, or laboratory research. This article nicely summarizes some of the work done in the lab for an understanding of cannabis’ potential anticancer mechanisms, while pointing to the paucity of human trials.” Dr. Temple adds, “Federal rescheduling of cannabis is critical so we can study its effects in humans and determine cannabis’ direct or indirect effects on cancer cells.”

References

Walsh D, Nelson KA, Mahmoud FA. Established and potential therapeutic applications of cannabinoids in oncology. Support Care Cancer. 2003 Mar;11(3):137-43.  DOI: 10.1007/s00520-002-0387-7

Bogdanović V, Mrdjanović J, Borišev I. A Review of the Therapeutic Antitumor Potential of Cannabinoids. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2017; DOI: 10.1089/acm.2017.0016

The above material provided by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Note that image may be edited for aesthetic reasons and content may be edited for length.

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